This Week in History: The Prohibition and Syracuse

prohibition raid 2_On October 28th, 1919, both the House of Representatives and the Senate passed the 17th Amendment enacting prohibition, overriding President Wilson’s veto. The National Prohibition Act, or The Volstead Act as it was uncommonly called.

For the story of prohibition in Syracuse, we turn to Sarah Kozma’s article, Hello Nellie!: The World of Speakeasies, Bootleggers and Raids in Prohibition Syracuse. 

Sarah works at OHA in the Research Center as a research specialist.

Hello Nellie! Spoken at a bar today, this probably wouldn’t get you very far, but said at the right bar in 1920s Syracuse, this would have gotten you an illegal alcoholic beverage.   Speakeasies, bootleggers, bathtub gin, moonshine; these words conjure up ideas of the Roaring 20s, old gangster movies, exciting car chases, and parties with flappers and dapper dans, but that is only part of the story.

The Temperance Movement, an effort to limit or ban the use of alcohol, with the goal of  making society a better place, started in the 1780s.  Through the years, the Temperance Movement gained in popularity.  From the 1890s-1910, it began appearing on election ballots and states, counties, and towns were given the choice of voting themselves “dry” or “wet.”  Dry towns generally forbade or severely restricted the manufacture, sale, and consumption of alcohol, while wet towns had few or no restrictions on alcohol.  The ultimate achievement of the Temperance Movement was Prohibition, 1920-1933.   Prohibition was, virtually, the entire nation going dry.  Syracuse’s Prohibition experience was not unlike other cities, but it was also unique unto itself.  The Noble Experiment had begun.

In the early twentieth century, Syracuse and the towns of Onondaga County struggled with the issue of temperance.  By 1916, ten of the nineteen towns had elected, by popular vote, to go “dry.”  In 1917, there was   pressure for the City of Syracuse and the Town of Geddes, particularly the Village of Solvay, to go dry, at least during the time the army camp was at the State Fairgrounds during World War 1.  There were petitions “to close all saloons in Syracuse during the Federal Encampment at the Fairgrounds in the ‘interest of public peace, public safety and public morals.’”

All of that became irrelevant in 1919 with the addition of the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution, and the passing of the Volstead Act, also called the National Prohibition Act, which in effect turned the whole country “dry.”  It became illegal to manufacture, sell, or transport any alcoholic beverage that had more than .5% alcohol; anything more was seen as an intoxicating beverage, which was under the umbrella of the Volstead Act.  On January 16, 1920, the nationwide Prohibition went into effect and Syracuse, like the rest of the country, went dry.  This was a problem for Syracuse on more than just a social level.  Syracuse had about eleven breweries in operation before Prohibition, but after 1920, breweries everywhere were forced to close or change their product.  They were allowed to make a .5% beer, which was called near-beer. This was not, however, what the people really wanted.

prohibition postcard_

Instead of simply going along with the new law, many people found ways to subvert it.  Many engaged  in home-brewing, while others becoming bootleggers by running their own distillery. Still other people served as rum-runners, smuggling liquor into the States from Canada. However, the most well-known option, perhaps even the most popular, was the speakeasy.  Although illegal, speakeasies popped up all over the city, so there were plenty of places where people could get a taste of the illicit brews, but discretion of the location and also of where the alcohol was stored was crucial to avoid heavy fines and even jail time.  Speakeasies were often on upper floors of business areas, with a heavy metal door with a peephole.  The peephole allowed the doorman to see the potential customers before he let them in.  In many places, a password was also required as further security against law enforcement officers.  In addition to the speakeasies, illegal drinks could be obtained at certain cafes, former saloons, and hotels with the right password spoken at the bar.  Once inside, the speakeasies were often well decorated lounges and stylish clubs, where customers could get a variety of homebrew beers and various liquors.  The speakeasies, also called “blind tigers” or “blind pigs,” would generally get their drinks from bootleggers, who made their product in places called “wildcat breweries.”  They would also serve a special concoction of the near-beer by injecting alcohol into it using a syringe needle, and selling it as needle-beer.

From the start of prohibition, a federal Prohibition Enforcement Office was established in Syracuse.  However, during the first few years, enforcement was lax and raids were random and unorganized.  A superintendent of the local Anti-Saloon League of New York explained the problem: “A bunch of wet political leaders have been responsible for the appointment of incompetent and crooked federal agents.  Notorious liquor joints have been running wide open, apparently under protection.”  However by 1925 the situation had changed –  “The house cleaning in the federal office has improved the situation.  Some of the worst offenders have been raided and are awaiting punishment.  Places that have been running wide open for years have been knocked off.  The bootleg underworld in Central New York is in terror.  Another year of this kind of vigorous prosecution and bootlegging will be not only unpopular but unprofitable.” [Post-Standard 5-11-1925]

Prohibition raid 1_

The federal agents had to catch the bootleggers and speakeasy owners in possession of alcohol, which made surprise raids crucial to success.  Agents went armed with a search warrant, sledgehammers, axes and crowbars, but sometimes the raids of suspected speakeasies or breweries turned up nothing, possibly because the alcohol was cleverly hidden or perhaps the owners had been alerted to the coming raid.  Often it all came down to timing; it was about right time, right place when the bootleggers and speakeasy owners could be caught red-handed.

In the late 1920s, there was a crackdown on Syracuse bootleggers and speakeasies with the assignment of experienced agents, like Lowell Smith, aka The Scourge, and Charles Kress, aka the Nemesis of Syracuse.  There developed quite a rivalry between these two lawmen and they spurred one another on to best each other in their jobs, which in turn led to an increase in raids and seizures, much to the dismay of the bootleggers. For example, early one morning Smith went out and led three raids on speakeasies and breweries.  While Smith was out, Kress was peacefully slumbering until one of his men came and told him what Smith was doing.  Kress, not wanting to be outdone, immediately went out and led four raids.


Some of the stories of the raids by the enforcement agents, particularly those of Charles Kress, seem to be straight out of the movies.  It was not uncommon for agents to don disguises to infiltrate speakeasies and brewing/distilling establishments.  Kress would send an agent, posing as a delivery boy with a package. When the door was opened for him, he was, literally, able to get his foot in the door and then call for the other agents hiding nearby.  Other methods included the use of fire ladders to climb through upper story windows and setting up bootleggers while posing as customers.  Kress even rode a dumbwaiter into a barricaded part of a saloon to catch out the occupants.  At one point the legality of some of his methods were questioned, but after a short suspension he was reinstated.

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Bootleggers were quite creative as well, using camouflaged trucks, secret rooms, hidden wall panels, mislabeled packaging, and safes.  They did their best to hide their doings, but were not always as successful as they hoped.  In 1923, there was a tip given to federal agents regarding a saloon on Burnet Ave. that was allegedly selling liquor.  When they showed up they could find nothing to support their suspicion, until they noticed a pipe which seemed slightly out of place.  Inside the pipe were two valves, one went to a six gallon tank of gin; the other to the same of whiskey.  Needless to say, the proprietor was arrested.

The federal agents did not always win the day.  John Miles remembers one such incident regarding Paul Knaus’s restaurant on Park St., from which he served illegal alcoholic beverages.  “…Paul received a tip that he was to be raided by Prohibition agents.  Paul had a keg of illegal beer on tap and rushed to get rid of it.  But rather than spill it down the sewer, he allowed a few regular patrons to roll it across the street and put a tap on it.   They were supplied with glasses.  When the Prohibition agents showed up they found no illegal booze in Paul’s place but several illegal drinkers enjoying a liquid picnic on the curb across the street.  However, since most of the evidence was now gone, the agents apparently felt in no mood to arrest a dozen or so citizens, some of them, we assume, a bit tipsy.” [Syracuse Herald American 5-17-1987]

Many speakeasies were well-known places in their local neighborhoods, as it was often the local neighbors who patronized the establishment.  However, this made security and secrecy important for the proprietors.  They were wary of newcomers, and the use of passwords, secret knocks, and doormen helped to protect the speakeasies and their clients.

As the crackdown continued the places to sell alcohol decreased, so in the last several years of Prohibition the bootleggers’ rivalry became much more intense, sometimes ending in physical confrontation and destruction of property.   Thankfully, Syracuse avoided the full-blown bootleg gang war that erupted in many cities.

By the early 1930s, many Syracusans had had enough. The Association Against the Prohibition Amendment was formed in 1930. Anti-prohibition parades and demonstrations were held around the city, many of the protesters, including ex-servicemen, touting the slogan “Prohibition is a failure; It must go!” One particular demonstration in May 1932 involved one of the biggest crowds that had ever gathered in downtown Syracuse. They even stood their ground through two thunderstorms and a hailstorm.  The organizers of this parade had invited all the city, county and legislative officials, however only a handful showed up, among them was Syracuse Mayor Rolland B. Marvin.

As support for repeal grew, and with the election of new leadership in Washington, legislation to end Prohibition was introduced. The Cullen-Harrison Act was introduced which, by April 1933, allowed up to 3.2% alcohol, rather than just .5%. Later the Blaine Act was presented, which was a repeal of Prohibition and  was passed as the 21st Amendment to the Constitution on December 5, 1933.  The Noble Experiment had run its course and ultimately failed.

In Syracuse, no large celebrations were held to welcome the end of Prohibition, although the following day there were quite a few Syracusans out enjoying their new freedom.After prohibition ended  many of the Syracuse breweries started up again but it was a long road to recovery and business was never quite the same afterward. In reality, it was the beginning of the end for local breweries.

Prohibition was an era full of contradictions, in Syracuse and around the country.  It brought people together,  yet it made them suspicious of each other. It was originally supported by a supposed majority, yet a mere thirteen years later it was widely protested.  It often changed respectable citizens into criminals. Many neighborhoods rallied around the lawbreakers, keeping silent rather than giving information to the lawmen. It was intended to better society yet criminality flourished. Perhaps this is what makes this era so interesting and unique. Prohibition in Syracuse generated memorable stories, fascinating characters, and had a major impact on its future development.

Stories from Syracuse: The Sig Sautelle Cat Act

Sig Sautelle cat actGeorge Satterly of Luzerne, New York was born in 1848 and started his career as a showman while enlisted in the Union Army during the Civil War learning ventriloquism. Starting out, he did his act while working as a wagonmaker and was soon found by A.B Stowe’s Great American Circus, performing his act in their sideshow and later he traveled with Barnum and Bailey Circus. After years on the road, he opened up his own circus in Syracuse, New York in 1882 called Sig Sautelle’s Big Shows.

In an article titled, Sig Sautelle: A Great Showan by John C. Kunzog, one of Satterly’s feline acts is described.

“…mention was made of Sautelle’s dislike for dogs. This hatred was an amazing antithesis to his love for cats. Any cat that strayed on the lot would be petted and fed by Sig. One of the most pleasing acts was Sig’s cat orchestra. Miniature band instruments were fastened to the paws of the cats, and with invisible threads, manipulated by Sautelle, the feline orchestra gave forth musical strains. It was, of course, Punch and Judy perspective, using felines for pupets. It was such acts as this, appealing to children and grow ups alike, that made the show popular with common people.”

The Onondaga County Connection to Civil War Hero Alonzo H. Cushing

pettitSome of OHA’s staff members heard a story on NPR this morning about Army 1st Lt. Alonzo H. Cushing (4th U.S. Light Artillery Battery A / “Cushing’s Battery”), who will receive a long overdue accolade, the Medal of Honor, from President Obama on November 6th. What OHA quickly connected was that a group of Onondaga County men, who comprised the 1st Regiment, Light Artillery, N. Y. S. Volunteers (also known as Petit’s Battery)  fought alongside Cushing’s Battery at the Battle of Gettysburg in July of 1863, where Cushing would lose his life.

More on Petit: In 1835 at the age of eight a bright young boy by the name of Rufus Petit (photographed left) came to live with his aunt and uncle at a farm near Baldwinsville, having lost his parents several years before. It is here that he was raised and worked his family farm until the age of 18 when he became an apprentice to architect Elijah Hayden of Syracuse who was also an ardent abolitionist.

In 1846, when Pettit was 22, the United States went to war with Mexico. Serving in Company A of the 1st New York Volunteers he quickly found he had a great talent for soldiering. He fought in a total of 8 battles including those at Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo and Mexico City where it is said his marksmanship was so great “It knocked a Mexican Flag from its pole”.  After the war Rufus was presented with a silver medal from the city of New York for his gallant service. Although never wounded he did contract a condition of “Chronic Diarrhea”, most likely the cause of a malaric disease that plagued armies at the time, and would trouble him for the rest of his life.

For the next 13 years he would reside at his family farm in Cold Springs near Baldwinsville. Then the Civil War broke out and he decided to sign up once again for the army. Combined with his experience in the Mexican War and the credibility it lent, he recruited a unit from among his friends and neighbors of Baldwinsville, originally named the Cold Springs Rifles before being moved into the artillery to become Company B of the 1st New York Light Artillery in the fall of 1861. Upon its arrival in Washington, Company B was the first to be fully mounted, and remained in camp in the vicinity of Washington until the spring of 1862.

Today in History: President Teddy Roosevelt is Born

1915-04-21-Roosevelt at Barnes TrialTheodore “Teddy” Roosevelt was born today in 1858. Roosevelt is known for his brash and progressive style during his time in politics during the late 19th and early 20th century, which included his views on legalism. In David H. Burton’s Theodore Roosevelt: Confident Imperialist, Burton explains Roosevelt felt that legalism supported sharp practice of law as opposed to an honest bargain to fight for what was just, which he would depend on later. On the other hand, Roosevelt’s Social Darwinian outlook came through when defining who was capable of political freedom, something he thought not every race of people was qualified to handle. Roosevelt’s imperialist attitude, something Burton points out, explaining how the state of America during the latter half of the 19th century lined up with that of Roosevelt’s early life and growth during his time at Harvard. This is clearly evident during the Spanish American War in 1898 when the United States intervened in Cuban revolt against Spanish rule and Roosevelt put together his band of “Rough Riders” to aid in the fight.

In 1915, Roosevelt would make a journey to Syracuse to defend himself against this brash style in what became known as the Barnes-Roosevelt Libel Case. Here’s what the Theodore Roosevelt Center has on the case:

“On April 19, 1915, a libel suit long in the making finally began in Syracuse, New York. Boss William Barnes had sued Theodore Roosevelt for libel, because a year earlier Roosevelt had publicly called Barnes “a political boss of the most obnoxious type.” The trial was moved to the Supreme Court in Syracuse to give both men an impartial jury as it was feared if the trial were held in Albany County, the jury would be skewed in favor of Barnes.

The trial began badly for the former president. The judge placed the burden of proof on Roosevelt to prove his innocence. He believed the burden should have fallen to Barnes. While Roosevelt admitted to his son Kermit that the judge was fair—if a bit legalistic—he was frustrated by the proceedings as a whole and surprised when, on May 22, 1915, the judge ruled in his favor.”

Here’s Theodore Roosevelt libel verdict, via The Post-Standard

Today in History

90 Years Ago: On October 26th 1924, Salina Street was re-opened to traffic following the removal of the bridge over the Erie Canal, the filling in of the canal, and the paving of the surface. The Erie Canal was officially closed to navigation in 1917 and was replaced by the Barge Canal which bypassed downtown Syracuse. In 1923, the engineering wonder of the 1820s was filled, graded, and turned into a parking lot for Model T’s and other automobiles in Clinton Square. In the 1930s, the parking lot was landscaped and remained divided by Erie Boulevard until a 2001 renovation created the space we are familiar with today. During the winter months, Syracusans can go ice skating on the reflecting pool, reminiscent of the days when people skated on the frozen canal.

– Daniel Connors of the OHA

The Creation of Dumbo and His Syracuse Connection

Dumbo and Syracuse

By Richard G. Case

“Back in the day, in 1999 when I still wrote for the Syracuse Post-Standard, the word “Syracuse’’ jumped out at me as I read an obituary in the New York Times for Helen Aberson Mayer, at 91.

The by-lined death notice said Helen wrote the story that inspired the 1941 Walt Disney film, “Dumbo.’’

It also said this happened when Helen, a Syracuse native, still lived in Syracuse.

1939-06-23 Helen PearlWho knew?  I asked myself.  A few phone calls convinced me the answer was:  this is a fragment of our history not too many people in Syracuse know about.  I had a story for my column.  Almost a year later, the yarn of Dumbo’s creation – “Still Flying” – was published as the cover story in the Post’s Sunday supplement, Stars magazine.

This is how it unraveled. . . .

Helen Aberson was born in Syracuse in 1907, the daughter of Anna and Morris Aberson, Russian immigrants to our town.  Morris Is listed in city directories as a cigar maker and grocer.  The family lived at 1307 East Genesee St.

She attended the Syracuse University School of Speech and graduated in 1929.  In a questionnaire she returned to the university’s Alumni Office in 1939, she wrote “I went to New York after graduation and did social work.  Returned to Syracuse in 1933 to direct dramatic activities at a nearby children’s camp (also took a) job as director of dramatic activities for the municipal recreational department.  I left in August 1937 to do radio work for a local concern.’’

Her niece, Jeanne Castle of Little Falls (the daughter of Helen’s brother, Sim Aberson) told me she believes Helen worked at WSYR, a Syracuse radio station, adopting the name of “Barbara Manning.’’ She listed her occupation as “radio commentator” on the Alumni Office form.

Helen continued on the form she sent to the Alumni Office, speaking for the first time of her first husband, Harold Pearl, her collaborator on the Dumbo story:

“I met my husband through business. He’s an ex-New York American newspaper man who had come to Syracuse as an exploitation and publicity man for United Artists.  He stayed on after being offered the managership of a downtown Syracuse theater (The Eckel.)

“We met in October 1937. I became Mrs. Harold Pearl on Feb.14, 1938.  (We couldn’t resist St.Valentine’s Day.)  We collaborated on a children’s story, which is to  be published soon.  Writing is a hobby at present but we hope to turn it into a full-time job some day.  We’re headed to New York right now and eventually the Coast – we hope.’’

The Pearls divorced in the summer of 1939.  Helen’s son of her second marriage, Andrew Mayer of Staten Island, told me that his mother explained to him that Harold Pearl returned to New York City after the divorce and died years before Helen.

In 1944, Helen married Richard J. Mayer, a former Wall Street Journal columnist and commodity editor she met while working for the Office of War Information in Washington during World War II.  He survived her in 1999.

There’s a hint in a 1939 Herald-Journal newspaper story of the high hopes that Helen and Harold had for “Dumbo” back then. The film was released in October 1941:

“Two Syracusans, Helen and Harold Pearl, had one of their children’s stories, ‘Dumbo, the Flying Elephant,’ purchased by Disney Productions. ‘’ A headline above the story read “Headed for Fame and Fortune.’’

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It didn’t turn out that way.  The Pearls originally sold the rights to their manuscript to a Syracusan, Everett Whitmyre, who apparently originated the idea of a Roll-a-Book, a book designed to be scrolled through, as a sideline to his work as an advertising agent.  To this day, we don’t know if “Dumbo’’ ever was published as a Roll-a-Book, although a proof of the manuscript exists in the papers of Helen Durney, a Syracuse artist who drew a series of illustrations for the “Dumbo’’ original.

Helen Mayer explained that transaction in more detail in a letter she wrote to a lawyer in 1993:  “In 1938, my ex-husband (now deceased) and I wrote a story about a little elephant with very big ears who used them to fly.  We named him Dumbo.

“We approached a local publisher in Syracuse, New York – then my home town – to print the books.  He said rather than printing a small number of books, we ought to send our manuscript to Walt Disney to be used for a movie.  We thought it was a wild idea but went along with it.  The very next day we had a call from the Disney people with an offer to buy our manuscript for $1,000 and they would publish it and make it into a movie.”

The Disney film followed the original Aberson-Pearl story, but details were changed and added.  For example, the authors called the mom of Dumbo “Mother Ella.’’  Disney renamed her “Mrs. Jumbo.’’  The Syracusans made up a helper for their little elephant.  He was a wise robin.  They called him “Red.’’  Disney turned him into a mouse named “Timothy.”

Helen Aberson traveled to California as a consultant on the film.  Her son, Andrew Mayer, said her heard various stories about his mother’s experience in California, but he sensed his mother returned home unhappy with some of the changes Disney made in her story.  “She was the sort of person who tried to see the sun in the clouds,’’ Andrew explained.

“She never said exactly, but I know she felt she was not treated well,’’ he continued. “She was upset about the manner in which her name was excluded” from the credits of “Dumbo” book Disney brought out in concert with the movie.  This happened when the original Roll-a-Book copyright expired in 1986.

The rights the Pearls sold to Disney included a series of Disney Golden Books still in print since the first in the 1940s.  Andrew Mayer thinks his mother earned about $1,000 from her creation.

The “Dumbo’’ project had a third collaborator in Syracuse, artist Helen Durney, who graduated with a degree in painting from Syracuse University in 1927.  Miss Durney, who died here in 1970, left only cousins, as far as we know.  Unfortunately, we don’t know her feelings about the “Dumbo’’ film and her relations with the Disney company.  The movie was not mentioned in her obituary.

A box of Helen Durney’s papers, including drawings and letters relating to “Dumbo,’’ was found in Chittenango after her death.  Those documents were donated to the Syracuse University library archives.

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Helen Durney apparently had a career as an artist and patron of the arts.  We don’t know how she connected to the Pearls.  In a letter in the Disney archives, written in 1939 to “Walter Disney,’’ Helen said “I have lived with him (Dumbo) since last February when he took form in one antic after another on tracing paper.  From these many rough sketches, Mr. (Everett) Whitmyre of Roll-a-Book picked the final sixteen for illustrations, which were finished in pen and ink.”

There is a vein of sadness in the letter.  Helen appears to be asking Walt Disney for a job.  She wished him luck on the new film (“Dumbo’’ was released in 1941), adding these lines:  “The world is so much richer place because you live, Walter Disney.  Don’t let anything happen to your creative genius.  Don’t ever grow up.’’

In the master’s reply, from the company archives, Disney said “As you predicted, he has proved to be a swell little character to work with, and we are having a lot of fun making the picture.’’  He did not offer her a job.  Biographers of Walt Disney claim the “Dumbo’’ movie saved the small, struggling company from financial ruin.

Her obituary said Helen Durney “worked for the Knopf Publishing Co. in New York City for several years.”  She also served as educational and publicity secretary at the Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, now the Everson Museum. The museum exhibited some of her “Dumbo’’ drawings in 1939.  In a talk she gave at the museum that year, Helen credited Everett Whitmyre with inventing the Roll-a-Book concept while watching children at the New York Public Library.  “Without Mr. Whitmyre, there would have been no Dumbo,’’ Helen said.

Andrew Mayer believes his mother, also Helen, once had a copy of the “Dumbo’’ book, which readers turned using a small knob.  He said Helen Mayer’s trunk of “Dumbo’’ memoriablia had been lost by the family.  There is a printer’s proof of the book, as written by the Pearls, in Helen Durney’s papers at SU.

Press materials distributed by Disney for the 60th in 2001 stated that a sequel, “Dumbo II,’’ was in production, scheduled for release in 2004.  It has not appeared, so far.

Dumbo Illustration by Helen Durney, orginal located at SU Special Collections

Footnote: Ever the curious reporter, I tried to follow the path of Helen Durney in 1999.  Two of her cousins were mentioned as survivors in her brief obituary in 1970.  One of her cousins was a Mrs. Andrew Anguish of Chittenango.  It turned out that both Mrs. Anguish and her husband had died, too.

I called my friend, the late Clara Houck, a native daughter and historian of Chittenango.  Did she know the Anquishes?  She did.  She also knew their neighborhood, Arlene Baird, had looked after them and helped settle their estate, when Andrew died in 1996.  Why not call Arlene?  Clara suggested.

I did and stood on Arlene’s glassed-in porch a few days later, listening to her story about having the power of attorney for Andrew Anguish and helping to clean out the house after his death.  She said she’d come across a box of the papers of Helen Durney.  She was tempted to trash them but had second thoughts.  After all, Arlene reasoned, someone must have cared for them all these years.  She knew Helen Durney was an artist; the papers must be connected to her career.

“I guess they were saved for a reason,’’ Arlene said.

Arlene agreed with me that the papers, stuffed into a Syracuse department store suit box, ought to be donated to Syracuse University, where both Helens, Durney and Aberson, had graduated.  Two months later, Arlene Baird herself died.”

In Their Own Words: The Election of 1864

The Election of 1864 was an important one and not just because it was the 20th election for the President of the United States. At this time, the U.S  was still in the midst of a brutal civil war. The election had incumbent Abraham Lincoln and his running mate Andrew Jackson take on George B. McClellan of New Jersey and his running mate George H. Pendleton. Meetings and rallies occurred throughout the United States on the campaign trails of these men, one of which happened right here in Syracuse on October 19th, 1864. The New York Times reported the following article on October 8th leading up to the event, put together by the National Union Executive Committee which sought to get Lincoln re-elected, of upcoming gatherings:



Gov. ANDREW, of Massachusetts, and Gov. BROUGH, of Ohio, will address mass meetings in this State, under the auspices of the National Union Executive Committee, at the following times and places:

Syracuse, Wednesday, Oct. 19. (Emphasis OHA)

Rochester, Thursday, Oct. 20.

Lockport, Friday, Oct. 21.

Buffalo, Saturday, Oct. 22.

Gov. ANDREW also speaks at Albany Monday evening, Oct. 17, and at mass meeting at Rome, Tuesday, Oct. 18, with Col. JAMES F. JAQUESS, of Illinois, (of Richmond visit notoriety.) Col. JAQUESS also speaks at Owego on the 13th, at Herkimer on the 15th, and Fort Plain on the 17th.

Hon. LEWIS BARKER, of Maine, will speak at Owego on the 13th, Herkimer on the 15th, Fort Plain on the 17th, Cooperstown on the 20th.”

During the event, 2nd Lt. Edward F. Hopkins of Company E 149th Regiment New York State Volunteers out of Pompey, New York, wrote the following in his pocket diary:

Oct 19: Great Union mass meeting at Syracuse.  600 teams in line with banners, mottoes, & flags & music.  Streets full, nobody drunk & everybody satisfied that Abe will be elected…

These events were Union tickets (Pro-Lincoln) who defended the aims of the Civil War, which the Democratic Convention at Chicago called a failure, which this New York Times article, dated October 15th, further describes.


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